The "Great Amnesty" – For Jubilee of Mercy, Pope Opens Doors to "Forgiveness"... and Misinterpretation
Having taken July and August on a relative breather – not so much for his own downtime, but to give everyone else a break – for the third year running, the Pope has started September with a bang. This time around, though, the subtext is even keener than usual, with the initial flurry coming three weeks before Francis' arrival in the US, where one of the most significant moments of his 30-month pontificate awaits.
Even before the first of the month, Papa Bergoglio laid down his opening marker for the Stateside tour yesterday, holding a surprise "virtual audience" with representatives of his beloved "peripheries" – migrants, the poor and homeless – in Los Angeles, Chicago and McAllen, Texas.
Arranged by ABC News in conjunction with the Holy See, the hourlong session – its sites chosen by Francis himself, knowing he won't be able to visit them in person – will be broadcast in full on Friday night in the network's 20/20 slot. Shortly after the program was recorded, however, a first teaser was released....
Meanwhile, this morning saw another bolt from the blue with the release of a papal letter detailing some initiatives for the coming extraordinary Holy Year of Mercy, which Francis will open on 8 December – the 50th anniversary of Vatican II's close – as a time to reiterate that, as he put it earlier this year, "the church is the house that welcomes all and refuses no one."
Though the initiative's full programmatic impact is only expected to emerge after next month's climactic Synod on the Family as the Pope decides on the gathering's proposals for fine-tuning the pastoral care of the faithful in challenging situationsvis á vis church teaching, today's missive – addressed to the observance's lead coordinator, Archbishop Rino Fisichella – immediately sparked misleading headlines on the perennial third-rail of the church's response to abortion given Francis' decision "to concede to all priests for the Jubilee Year the discretion to absolve of the sin of abortion those who have procured it and who, with contrite heart, seek forgiveness for it."
Yet again underscoring the centrality of the Confessional in his spirituality – and his ceaseless urging of everyone (himself included) toward it – Francis wrote that "the forgiveness of God cannot be denied to one who has repented, especially when that person approaches the Sacrament of Confession with a sincere heart in order to obtain reconciliation with the Father."
To be sure, the text doesn't mention the canonical penalties attached to the procuring of an abortion, but – much like the recently-announced, yet still to be constituted CDF tribunal for abuse of office by bishops – is likely to be backed up with juridical guidelines in due course. As implications go, the move as understood would merely extend on a universal level what's long been standard practice across North America (albeit not in Europe): namely, that while the lifting of the latae sententiae (automatic) excommunication for a woman who obtains an abortion and those directly involved in the procedure is reserved in canon law to the bishop of the place to underscore the severity of the act, the faculty to release from the penalty over and above the sin itself is already delegated on a "blanket" basis to practically every priest hearing confessions in the US and Canada (and likely well beyond) and has been for decades.
In other words, the much-touted "shift" is something long in place across much of the Catholic world, and is only being extended to wherever it doesn't already exist by simple fiat of the local bishop.
On another front, some coverage has erroneously indicated that the excommunication for abortion will no longer be in force – a move that, in the theoretical sense, would be fully within Francis' purview to enact as the church's supreme legislator. At least as things stand, though, no dice there, either – to abolish the penalty would require a formal decree from him to abrogate (i.e. remove) Canon 1398 from the Code.
As an important qualifier to all this, it bears emphatic reminding that for a latae sententiae excommunication on any grounds to take effect, the person committing the act must be fully cognizant of its legal consequences. Yet as Francis himself explained today, that's often, even usually, not the case: "the tragedy of abortion is experienced by some with a superficial awareness, as if not realizing the extreme harm that such an act entails. Many others, on the other hand, although experiencing this moment as a defeat, believe that they have no other option.
"I think in particular of all the women who have resorted to abortion," he wrote. "I am well aware of the pressure that has led them to this decision. I know that it is an existential and moral ordeal. I have met so many women who bear in their heart the scar of this agonizing and painful decision. What has happened is profoundly unjust; yet only understanding the truth of it can enable one not to lose hope."
In addition to the provision on abortion, the Pope opened another significant avenue to express his intent that "this Jubilee Year of Mercy excludes no one." In a remarkable opening for the priests of the traditionalist Society of St Pius X – who, despite being validly ordained, are suspended due to their leadership's ongoing refusal of communion with the Roman pontiff – Francis "establish[ed] that those who during the Holy Year of Mercy approach these priests... to celebrate the Sacrament of Reconciliation shall validly and licitly receive the absolution of their sins."
For his part, the Pope said the move sprung from his concern for "those faithful who for various reasons choose" to attend SSPX chapels, a group estimated at around a million worldwide. With now-Pope-emeritus Benedict's controversial push to heal the major schism of the post-Vatican II church largely having stalled over the Swiss-based Society's reluctance to accept the Council's declarations on religious liberty and interfaith dialogue, whether the open hand from Francis – whose freewheeling style has often stoked fury among traditionalists – accomplishes progress toward an eventual reunion is anyone's guess.
All that said, far from the hot-button fray, a certain term slipped into the letter likely provides the most potent glimpse into Francis' sweeping intent for the Jubilee as it rolls into motion. His concern for prisoners already well known, in a passage on including the incarcerated in celebrations of the Holy Year, the Pope writes that, from its earliest roots, "the Jubilee Year has always constituted an opportunity for great amnesty, which is intended to include the many people who, despite deserving punishment, have become conscious of the injustice they worked and sincerely wish to re-enter society and make their honest contribution to it. May they all be touched in a tangible way by the mercy of the Father who wants to be close to those who have the greatest need of his forgiveness."
And if that's his wish for a civil society he doesn't directly govern, what could ensue in the "ecclesial society" he does suddenly seems all the more uncharted.
Suffice it to say, you've been forewarned.... All around, a wild Fall Cycle awaits – buckle up.
"The Challenge Peter Gave Us" – In Chicago, The Pallium Comes Home
Just past 11 months since the news broke – and, with it, every possible reaction under the sun began to erupt – this Sunday afternoon in Chicago brings an unprecedented transition of Stateside Catholicism's third-largest outpost full circle as Archbishop Blase Cupich receives his Pallium in Holy Name Cathedral.
Given the Pope's desire to return the rite to the local churches – announced last January as a sign of a re-amplified "synodality" in the universal church's governance – today's ceremony marks the first domestic conferral of the metropolitan's band since 1983, after which St John Paul II took the act to himself, placing the woolen symbol of "the fullness of the episcopal authority" on the world's new archbishops every year on the feast of Saints Peter and Paul during a concelebrated liturgy in St Peter's.
While Francis continued the practice of celebrating this year's 29 June with the metropolitans named over the prior 12 months, the pontiff only gave each his pallium – only to be worn within his province – in private following the Mass, to be placed on them at home by their respective papal representative. Accordingly, the second US metropolitan named over the past year, Archbishop John Wester of Santa Fe, will be invested in early October – just after the feast of St Francis of Assisi – in his New Mexico cathedral dedicated to the Poverello.
All that said, below is Quigley Chancery's livefeed on-demand video of the Mass... with, of course, its worship aid... homily, etc. to come.
SVILUPPO: Finally clad in the garment whose ancient conferral rite terms it Peter's "bond of love and incentive to courage" – and likewise armed with Francis' reported nod as a papal appointee to October's climactic Synod on the Family – Cupich delivered the following potent preach, starting off with one of the Pope's favorite painters... indeed, an artist with deep Chicago ties:
By the simple yet solemn act of placing the pallium on my shoulders, you, Archbishop Viganò, have demonstrated the singular and important service you offer to the Church as a representative of the Holy Father. The pallium is a sign of the bond we in Chicago share with the successor of St. Peter, but you make real the personal nature of that bond by your presence today, which I might add we have been privileged to enjoy no less than four times over these past nine months since my installation. Thank you for making Pope Francis so very present, by coming to Chicago once again today. We ask you please to convey to the Holy Father our warmest affection and esteem and assurances of our prayers as he prepares to visit us in three weeks and our prayers will continue during his actual visit, My heartfelt welcome to you all – young and old, interreligious leaders, elected officials, parishioners, women and men religious and priests from around the archdiocese, and friends and members of my own family who have travelled far. You presence today is very encouraging to me. In particular I want to tell my brother bishops from Illinois and the region how grateful I am for your support by joining us today. Thank you. Chicagoans may be more familiar with one other bishop who is here this afternoon, as he brings us back to that celebrated moment last spring when we made a little wager with his diocese during the Stanley Cup Finals. Coming from Tampa, we welcome Bishop Bob Lynch of the Diocese of St. Petersburg. We’re so delighted you’re here. As Jackie Gleason used to say, “Thanks for the memories!” Peter: Steward of the Church’s Faith Marc Chagall’s famous painting, The Praying Jew, depicts a man, wrapped in a prayer shawl with phylacteries, ribbons imbedded with passages of the Torah from the Old Testament. They are banded around his head, reaching to the elbow and the hand. The point is simple – the one who prays is to sit with the Word of God that it may ever be in his mind, his heart and his actions. A garment rich in meaning, this prayer vestment provokes deep reflection. So too does the pallium. Made of lamb’s wool, marked with crosses and stained at the ends in black to resemble hoofs of the sheep, it is placed on the shoulders reminding the one who wears it and the entire church he serves that we are a community that goes after the lost sheep. Not only those who have strayed, but those who are ignored, forgotten or overlooked. The task is not just to find them and bring them home, but to lift them up high, to shoulder level, where they can begin to see and live a new life, the life of faith. While there are no scripture texts imbedded in the pallium, we have the happy coincidence that the scripture readings for today are so apt, with a Gospel that features Peter, in union with the other 11 Apostles, leading the Church in making the act of faith in Christ, the Holy One of God. All of this invites us, then, to sit with the Word God and reflect on what is being asked of us, as the successor of Peter through his representative places the pallium on my shoulders as the pastor of the Church of this City of Big Shoulders. And, I do mean us, for I know I cannot carry this important responsibility by myself. Notice in the first reading that like Peter, Joshua speaks for the people, and calls them to make an act of faith. He does so by recalling the story of God’s marvelous deeds. He called them to remember: “...it was the LORD, our God, who brought us and our fathers up out of the land of Egypt, out of a state of slavery. He performed those great miracles before our very eyes and protected us along our entire journey and among the peoples through whom we passed.” For this reason, Joshua proclaims, anticipating St. Peter’s response: “I stand with the Lord.” Every successor of St. Peter, and now Pope Francis, offers a similar service of memory for the Church. Traditionally, in union with the college of bishops, the Pope has acted as the guarantor of the Church’s deposit of faith, preserving and being in touch with what has been handed on and developed over the ages. His service is needed lest we begin to treat the church’s tradition too narrowly and forget the history of our faith and the treasures we have. Recently, as I was visiting with some patrons of the Vatican Museum, I noted that the aim of the Museum is not to make the pope an art collector. Rather, it testifies to his role of preserving the heritage of how the beauty of creation and the Gospel has been expressed in each age. So, too, the pope guards the treasures of our faith so that nothing is lost, ever keeping before us the entire tradition, lest we end up absolutizing one particular era. Peter’s successor not only keeps safe the entire treasury, the entire deposit as it has developed over 2000 years, but he keeps it before us in its entirety, reminding us of the whole story of God’s mighty deeds, which continues to develop in each age with the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Saint Pope John XXIII offered this service of memory in his talk at the opening of the Second Vatican Council. He called the entire Church to a fresh appreciation of the ancient teaching of the medicine of mercy in an era when many in the Church preferred the narrow path of severity and condemnation. So, too, in his encyclical Laudato Si’, Pope Francis quoted generously from statements on the environment made by bishops’ conferences around the world and from the Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew. In doing so he put us in touch with the universality of the Church, reminding us that God is doing great things not only in every age, but in every place around the world today. It is the pope’s ministry that draws us out of a narrow provincial view that reduces our experience of Church to just what is happening in my parish, my diocese, my country. The pope’s travels around the world similarly offer this service. As we follow him on these visits to Asia, to Latin America, to Europe and soon to our own country and after that to Africa, he introduces us to our brothers and sisters in places we never visited, reminding us of what it means to be Catholic, a Church whose universality must be reflected in every particular Church. All of this has much to say to this local Church as he gives us a share in his unique ministry through the pallium. Peter: Witness of the Resurrection Today’s readings also remind us that Peter serves as a witness to the full meaning of the resurrection. Notice how Peter senses instinctively that there is something new about this Jesus of Nazareth, he calls him “the Holy One of God”, which literally means the one who is alive with the creative life of God. Peter understands this fully when Jesus is raised from the dead, reminding us that the resurrection cannot be limited to an event that happened two thousand years ago. It is about the Risen Lord, whom Pope Francis constantly tells us, is always doing something new. This is how he puts it in The Joy of the Gospel, and I quote: “Jesus can always break through the dull categories with which we would enclose him, and he constantly amazes us with his divine creativity,” to the point that “new avenues arise, new paths of creativity open up, with different forms of expression, more eloquent signs, and words with new meaning for today’s world.” It occurs to me that the reading from Paul’s Letter to the Ephesians today is a good example of how the early Church experienced the newness brought about by the Risen Lord. Honestly, many preachers prefer to avoid this text, as it has a phrase that makes many squirm – especially men – as they hear the words, “wives be submissive to your husbands.” What is overlooked, however, is the opening sentence that husbands and wives are to be subordinate to each other. They each are to become lowly, poor for each other. People in this era of the early Church would have found this quite astonishing, if not revolutionary. Subordination in a family was not a two way street at that time. Christ was doing something utterly new in the human family, changing how people understand their relationships with each other as family. With the upcoming synod, it is clear that the Holy Father is calling the Church to examine our categories of expression about what we believe and be open to new avenues and creativity when it comes to accompanying families. All of this has much to say to us in Chicago, that we not settle for solutions that no longer work, expressions that no longer inspire and ways of working that stifle creativity and collaboration. Concluding Words on the Challenge Peter Give Us Peter’s unique ministry in the Church is a great gift, as is the pallium received today. Our commission begins with searching out the lost, but it does not end there. Once found, the lost are to be lifted high above the daily toil, so that they may see their salvation as but another of the mighty deeds of God over the ages, so that in being raised high they will experience the newness of risen life and by being lifted to eye level, they will see Christ face to face and come to believe in God’s love.
When Chagall painted The Praying Jew in 1923, he asked a local street beggar to dress in his father’s clothes and serve as the model. The Lord likewise chose the beggar Peter, as his model, a man weak and sinful by his own admission and the Church’s. In fact, the earliest depictions of Peter in Christian art are of a man weeping, the repentant Peter. Just as Peter’s faith is a model for us, his poverty and lowliness is too, as we take up this share in his ministry. A great reminder to us, that while we are honored to join in this service and leadership, we do so as poor beggars, depending not on our accomplishments and strengths but on his grace and mercy. For, like St. Peter, we know the value of lifting up to shoulder level the lost, for we have been lost ourselves.
Here, from the seat of the largest diocese American Catholicism has ever known – LA's Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels – the on-demand fullvid of this morning's presser introducing the three auxiliaries named today for the 5 million-member mega-fold: Bishops-elect Joseph Brennan, David O'Connell and Robert Barron... all conspicuously wearing replicas of Pope Francis' pectoral cross.
En respuesta a una pregunta en español, Don José dijo que la ordenación sería "en los primeros de septiembre," su fecha no ya elegido. El Arzobispo también dijo que los encargados de sus nuevos auxiliares serán determinados durante las semanas próximas.
Bishop Barron Goes to Hollywood – Pope Names Mundelein Mogul One of 3 LA Auxiliaries
For some years now, Fr Robert Barron’s champions have lionized the Chicago-based New Evangelization guru as this age’s answer to Fulton Sheen.
Suffice it to say, the prophecy’s panned out.
In a stunning move, at Roman Noon this Tuesday, the Pope named the 55 year-old rector/president of the Windy City's Mundelein Seminary as one of three auxiliary bishops for the nation’s largest local church — the 5 million-member archdiocese of Los Angeles — alongside two of its most well-regarded lifers: Msgr Joseph Brennan, 61, the career pastor turned lead vicar-general to Archbishop José Gomez, and the Irish-born Msgr David O’Connell, 61, whose decades of ministry in LA’s violence-torn South Central corridor arguably comprise the Stateside bench’s most potent example yet of the “peripheries” Francis insistently wants present at the church’s center.
While each bishop-elect brings a compelling story, to use one op’s term, the appointment of Barron is likely to “suck the air out of the room” far beyond the three-county SoCal juggernaut, now the largest diocese in American Catholicism’s five centuries of existence. A protege of the late Cardinal Francis George (whose own successor in Chicago some leading prelates hoped Barron would be), the nominee's Word on Fire ministry of films, widely circulated, conservative-leaning columns and YouTube commentaries have made him a household name in church circles as well as one of the US fold's most popular speakers, and now, the highest-profile Stateside priest to enter the episcopacy since one Timothy Michael Dolan became an auxiliary of his native St Louis in 2001 after seven years of taking Rome by storm as rector of the Pontifical North American College.
Along these lines, Barron is one of the few incoming US bishops who's already appeared before his new confreres as a speaker, having served as spiritual director for the bench's 2013 summer retreat. Yet even as the calculus behind his Western move remains a mystery, its seismic impact on two of the nation's three largest dioceses is immediate: in LA, the bishop-elect heads to the most influential seat of pop culture on earth, his "rock star" talents for communication (and, indeed, fund-raising) on-hand to shore up a sometimes restive Anglo minority in the trenches, while in the 2.3 million-member Chicago church, the leadership of Mundelein – long regarded as the "crown jewel" of American seminaries, currently the US' third-largest formation house – now falls vacant for Archbishop Blase Cupich to fill just nine months into his tenure, a pick with implications across the Midwest.
All that said, now comes the interesting part. With Brennan likely to remain at the helm of the Chancery – which was recently reconfigured into nine core departments reporting to him – Barron and O'Connell are expected to take up duties as regional bishops each overseeing one of the LA behemoth's five pastoral areas. On their own, four of the regions have at least a million Catholics – a figure which would place each region among the US church's 15 largest outposts – and given the massive scope of the larger local fold, the regions essentially function as five mini-dioceses. How that ministry will mesh with Barron's wider purview remains to be seen, but in a statement released this morning by Word on Fire, the bishop-elect said "the short answer is that" his media work "will certainly continue" as the apostolate's staff "will keep bringing you my regular articles, sermons, videos, and media resources."
On the local front, meanwhile, it might seem unusual for a diocese that's now no less than 70 percent Hispanic to receive three Anglo appointees, and as the first round chosen by a Mexican-born archbishop at that. Beyond further evidence of a pressing national demand for Latino candidates that far outstrips its supply, however, the nods for Brennan and O'Connell – both fluent in Spanish and with broad experience in Hispanic communities – manifest the almost unique degree to which LA's Anglo clergy has proven fully effective at ministering to what's become the archdiocese's ethnic supermajority, the lead force behind its doubling in size over the last 25 years.
Said effectiveness is especially apparent in O'Connell's case. Having done double duty in South Central pastoring an African-American parish alongside a Hispanic one, the Irish emigré has won wide acclaim for his work on fronts ranging from immigration to unemployment and South LA's notorious history of gang violence. Hailed as an exemplar of the priesthood in a 2002 LATimes profile as the clergy sex-abuse crisis made national headlines, the candid cleric likewise made a wave of a different sort in the piece with an indirectly cited statement that "women should be ordained and clergy should be able to marry."
"If there had been some parents in there running things," O'Connell said then in reference to abuse and its cover-up, "none of this would have ever happened."
For his part, having served at the now-decommissioned St Vibiana's on Skid Row, Brennan – who's kept his home in an inner-city parish, shirking a space in the archbishop's Cathedral residence – enjoys a reputation as not just a committed pastor and engaging preacher, but a fairly accomplished tenor, even logging some YouTube cameos of his own....
The trio will be presented by Gomez at a 10am Pacific presser in the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels (on-demand video). While the ordination date remains in the works, the rites are expected to take place before the Pope's late September visit to the East Coast, during which Francis will address the US bishops in Washington's St Matthew's Cathedral.
In preliminary comments this morning, Gomez said he "could not be happier" over the appointments.
"They are good priests. Each one is a man of prayer and a man of service. Each one has a heart for the poor and a passion to share the good news of God’s mercy and love with everyone in the world today. So I am delighted and grateful that the Pope has called them to be auxiliary bishops."
SVILUPPO: With the diocesan Angelus News portal running a full package on the picks, here below are the prepared statements from the bishops-elect, in the order of their appointments as announced by Rome.
First, from Bishop-elect Joe Brennan....
Overwhelmed and even a bit perplexed by this appointment, I am humbled and deeply indebted to Pope Francis and Archbishop Jose Gomez. This moment has somehow led me to reminisce about many things, including my seminary days. The first ‘seminary’ I attended, however, was not St. John’s Seminary in Camarillo but the family home in Van Nuys. My ‘professors’ were incredible. Mom and Dad had ‘Doctorates’ in the school of love, devotion and ‘hard knocks’. My Uncle, Msgr. John L. Brennan (“Fr. John”), merits special mention here too as a model of sanctity and service, incredible priest and loving shepherd of the flock. Like you, I have had some great teachers and whether those among them who have died are smiling or wondering about this turn of events, I know that I am on the receiving end of their loving care from heaven. For that I am beyond grateful. Their prayers, care and support will sustain me. I’m counting on it. I’m counting on yours too! We are certainly in this together. As St. John Paul wrote in chapter 5 of his Apostolic Exhortation entitled, “Pastores Dabo Vobis” (I Will Give You Shepherds), “The spiritual life is, indeed, an interior life, a life of intimacy with God, a life of prayer and contemplation, but this very meeting with God and with his fatherly love for everyone, brings us face to face with the need to meet our neighbor, to give ourselves to others, to serve in a humble and disinterested fashion, following the example which Jesus has proposed to everyone as a program of life when he washed the feet of the Apostles.” God bless you, always and all ways.
From Bishop-elect Dave O'Connell....
I read that sometime last year that Pope Francis told some newly named bishops not to take their appointment as an honor or a title or even as a reward for good work, but as a call to follow Jesus more closely and to serve His people with more fervor. So I am very moved that the Holy Father has named me as an auxiliary bishop in the Los Angeles Archdiocese, and I must admit, I am a bit nervous about it. I have had the privilege of being a priest of this Archdiocese for 36 years since I was ordained in 1979 in All Hallows' college in Dublin, Ireland. I regard it as a great blessing in my life to have had the opportunity to serve here. I thank God that as the years go on I have more and more love for my priesthood and for the people in the parishes I have served. The parishioners of St. Raymond's, St. Maria Goretti and St. Hilary's where I was an associate have taught me how to be a priest. The parishioners of St. Frances X. Cabrini, Ascension, St. Eugene's and St. Michael’s have taught me how to be a good pastor. The people from these parishes have also given me a great gift; the gift of a living relationship with Jesus which is the most precious gift of all. I want to thank Cardinal Manning who ordained me a deacon in 1979 and Cardinal Mahony who has been my Archbishop for most of my priesthood here, and I also want to thank Archbishop Gomez for his support of me and for accepting this nomination of me as auxiliary bishop. (I am not sure if he had a choice or not, but I thank him anyway). I think there is no Archdiocese in the country where the Catholic faith is more alive in parishes from the poorest area of the Archdiocese to the most wealthy and everyplace in between. I think this is because of the great leadership of Cardinal Manning, Cardinal Mahony and of course Archbishop Gomez and our auxiliary bishops. I am excited about joining them in this great work of Jesus among the people. The greatest joy of my life is being a pastor. It is a privilege to be part of people's lives especially in their time of suffering and need. I think our parishes and schools are powerful instruments of transformation of people's lives and of neighborhoods. I hope that as an auxiliary bishop I can continue to be a good pastor for the people. In this we all have a great example in Pope Francis who, even though he has the cares of the whole Catholic Church on his shoulders, continues to reach out to the poor and the rejected in a very loving and compassionate way. It's a great time to be Catholic since we are entering into the Synod on the Family and on a Holy Year of Mercy. The Pope is calling all of us to show the face of the compassionate and merciful Jesus to the world. I am proud to be part of this great ministry in the years ahead.
And, of course, Bishop-elect Bob Barron....
It was with enormous surprise that I heard the word of my appointment last week, but it is with a humble and joyful heart that I have accepted it. I am grateful to Pope Francis for his confidence in me and to Archbishop Gomez for his willingness to allow me to minister in this beautiful, richly diverse, and spiritually vibrant Church. I have visited the Los Angeles area many times, including seven or eight journeys to speak at the legendary Religious Education Congress in Anaheim. Over the years, I have also spoken here at the Cathedral, at St. John’s Seminary in Camarillo, at Act One in Hollywood, and at Thomas Aquinas College. So although I cannot say that I know this Archdiocese well, I have indeed been able to taste and see some of its goodness. The late Cardinal Francis George, who was a mentor to me, taught me the central importance of evangelizing the culture, bringing the power of Christ to the arenas of politics, law, the arts, higher education, the media, and entertainment. This has been my preoccupation over the years, informing my work as teacher, writer, and evangelist. I cannot imagine a more exciting field for this sort of endeavor than Los Angeles, one of the great cultural capitals of the world. I believe that the most significant challenge facing the Catholic Church today is the attrition of our own people. That upwards of 75% of Catholics do not regularly practice their faith is directly repugnant to the stated desire of the fathers of Vatican II and constitutes a serious threat to the future of the Church. And if the Church loses its voice, then who will speak to an increasingly secularized culture of God, of Jesus, of salvation, of eternal life? Therefore, if I can use the words of St. Paul, “woe to me if I do not evangelize!” I will confess to some trepidation in my heart as I leave behind friends, family, and familiar surroundings, but I trust very much in the providence of God and in the kindness of the people of the great Archdiocese of Los Angeles. Please pray for me and teach me how to be a good bishop. God bless you.
“Jesus knows that in this world filled with competition, envy and aggressiveness, true happiness comes from learning to be patient, from respecting others, from refusing to condemn or judge others. As the saying goes: 'When you get angry, you lose.' Don’t let your heart give in to anger and resentment. Happy are the merciful. Happy are those who know how to put themselves in someone else’s shoes, those who are able to embrace, to forgive. We have all experienced this at one time or another. And how beautiful it is! It is like getting our lives back, getting a new chance. Nothing is more beautiful than to have a new chance. It is as if life can start all over again....”
Suffice it to say, those who've missed these days lost out on experiencing an extraordinary week. Full wrap to come – and with the PopeFlight touching down in Rome shortly before 2pm local (8am ET), only then will the usual in-flight presser emerge.
Time for "Pictures" – In Greensburg, Ordination Eve
With this most resonant and evocative of PopeTrips now wrapping up – and even as the next term's hurdles are already well before us (and Texas is owed a delayed "field-trip") – it finally feels like the "end of school" is nearing 'round these parts.
Still, there's business to finish – tomorrow, the Stateside church's transition docket winds up for the summer with the ord/installation of Greensburg's long-awaited fifth bishop: the Harrisburg pastor now-formerly known, chainsaw and all, as "Father Ed."
Already lauded by the new crowd, his "humility" blared in headlines – and a powerful testimony of finding faith on the record – Ed Malesic inherits an American Catholic outpost as devout as Western Pennsylvania's coal mines run deep... yet with it, a place now feeling just as blasted through amid tough times over recent years; all around, a church hurting to a degree it arguably never needed nor deserved.
Lest anyone forgot, in all things history is the greatest teacher. And so it was that some 11 years ago, Bishop Anthony Bosco proved eerily prophetic in opening his successor's ordination by quoting his own mentor's adage that "it's dangerous to travel through a diocese on the day of a new bishop's arrival," as "one risks the danger of being hit by the pictures of his predecessor being thrown from rectory windows."
Even for the warning in this instance, alas, Bosco isn't here to repeat the line – once USCCB communications chair on the wider scene and a beloved shepherd at home, the bishop died suddenly at 85 two years ago last week, the Pirates game on TV and his constant companion, Joshua II (read: "2," not "the second") at his side.
Maybe especially given his absence, that the chair Bosco left – a seat since remade in grand form by the now-retiring Bishop Lawrence Brandt – now falls to a figure whose quiet yet palpable goodness, love of people and sense of humor so clearly echo that of our lost friend is a cause of joy and hope for Greensburg's good folks and their future. But even as Bosco's number still holds a place in this scribe's phone, we'd be remiss if this vigil weren't led by the legacy he so dearly loved, the people whose voices he formed and sent forward.
Ergo, given the third bishop's famous last word in Blessed Sacrament Cathedral, tonight our stage belongs to his proteges: the wild child of the Greensburg clergy – Fr Bob Lubic, the celebrated "Punk Priest" now pastoring three parishes there – and Bosco's spiritual daughter, our very own Nicki Sbaffoni, to bring their home-church back to the start....
"Let's Not Be Afraid To Say It – We Need Change, We Want Change": To Poor and Powerful Alike, Pope's Watershed Call for "Justice"
While much of yesterday's PopeTrip news-cycle fixated on what Francis did or didn't say to the Bolivian President Evo Morales on receiving a crucifix in the shape of a Communist hammer and sickle – and/or his reported use of a Burger King as a makeshift sacristy before yesterday's mega-Mass – yet again, the big story in reality lay elsewhere: his unleashing of a bombshell text that immediately takes its place among the handful of truly landmark addresses of this pontificate.
Before a summit of social movements representing workers, the poor and marginalized, the Pope delivered one of the longest and strongest speeches of his 28 months as Bishop of Rome – a loaded call for social justice born from "the barrio, the land, the office, the labor union" and its demand for "real change, structural change" from the "tyranny of mammon" through a revolution of an "intolerable" economic system that, he said, "runs counter to the plan of Jesus" as it "kills," "excludes" and "destroys Mother Earth."
The address was the second Papa Bergoglio's given to the World Meeting of Popular Movements – a joint venture of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace and the Vatican's Academy for Social Sciences – following his appearance at an initial gathering in Rome last October.
In a rarity for a speech from the usually free-wheeling Pope, the heavily programmatic product was laid out in numbered paragraphs with footnote citations – a clear signal of Francis' intent for the text to be received less as fleeting remarks able to be discounted than an enduring, consequential teaching document.
The centerpiece talk of this eight-day trek – which, later today, enters its home-stretch in Paraguay – the sweeping speech indeed doubles as the prime curtain-raiser for the most intensely awaited moment of Francis' September US trip: an unprecedented papal address to a joint meeting of Congress (for which, it emerged this week, an inauguration-style staging area is being planned on the Capitol's West Front so the Pope can greet the general public, who'll be able to watch the speech's simulcast on outdoor screens).
In the meantime, a manifesto of this magnitude has already seen no shortage of attempts at summary and will birth a flood of commentary for weeks. Even for that, just do your intelligence the favor of reading the actual text first.
* * *
Several months ago, we met in Rome, and I remember that first meeting. In the meantime I have kept you in my thoughts and prayers. I am happy to see you again, here, as you discuss the best ways to overcome the grave situations of injustice experienced by the excluded throughout our world. Thank you, President Evo Morales, for your efforts to make this meeting possible.
During our first meeting in Rome, I sensed something very beautiful: fraternity, determination, commitment, a thirst for justice. Today, in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, I sense it once again. I thank you for that. I also know, from the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace headed by Cardinal Turkson, that many people in the Church feel very close to the popular movements. That makes me very happy! I am pleased to see the Church opening her doors to all of you, embracing you, accompanying you and establishing in each diocese, in every justice and peace commission, a genuine, ongoing and serious cooperation with popular movements. I ask everyone, bishops, priests and laity, as well as the social organizations of the urban and rural peripheries, to deepen this encounter.
Today God has granted that we meet again. The Bible tells us that God hears the cry of his people, and I wish to join my voice to yours in calling for land, lodging and labor for all our brothers and sisters. I said it and I repeat it: these are sacred rights. It is important, it is well worth fighting for them. May the cry of the excluded be heard in Latin America and throughout the world.
1. Let us begin by acknowledging that change is needed. Here I would clarify, lest there be any misunderstanding, that I am speaking about problems common to all Latin Americans and, more generally, to humanity as a whole. They are global problems which today no one state can resolve on its own. With this clarification, I now propose that we ask the following questions:
Do we realize that something is wrong in a world where there are so many farmworkers without land, so many families without a home, so many laborers without rights, so many persons whose dignity is not respected?
Do we realize that something is wrong where so many senseless wars are being fought and acts of fratricidal violence are taking place on our very doorstep? Do we realize something is wrong when the soil, water, air and living creatures of our world are under constant threat?
So let’s not be afraid to say it: we need change; we want change.
In your letters and in our meetings, you have mentioned the many forms of exclusion and injustice which you experience in the workplace, in neighborhoods and throughout the land. They are many and diverse, just as many and diverse are the ways in which you confront them. Yet there is an invisible thread joining every one of those forms of exclusion: can we recognize it? These are not isolated issues. I wonder whether we can see that these destructive realities are part of a system which has become global. Do we realize that that system has imposed the mentality of profit at any price, with no concern for social exclusion or the destruction of nature?
If such is the case, I would insist, let us not be afraid to say it: we want change, real change, structural change. This system is by now intolerable: farmworkers find it intolerable, laborers find it intolerable, communities find it intolerable, peoples find it intolerable … The earth itself – our sister, Mother Earth, as Saint Francis would say – also finds it intolerable.
We want change in our lives, in our neighborhoods, in our everyday reality. We want a change which can affect the entire world, since global interdependence calls for global answers to local problems. The globalization of hope, a hope which springs up from peoples and takes root among the poor, must replace the globalization of exclusion and indifference!
Today I wish to reflect with you on the change we want and need. You know that recently I wrote about the problems of climate change. But now I would like to speak of change in another sense. Positive change, a change which is good for us, a change – we can say – which is redemptive. Because we need it. I know that you are looking for change, and not just you alone: in my different meetings, in my different travels, I have sensed an expectation, a longing, a yearning for change, in people throughout the world. Even within that ever smaller minority which believes that the present system is beneficial, there is a widespread sense of dissatisfaction and even despondency. Many people are hoping for a change capable of releasing them from the bondage of individualism and the despondency it spawns.
Time, my brothers and sisters, seems to be running out; we are not yet tearing one another apart, but we are tearing apart our common home. Today, the scientific community realizes what the poor have long told us: harm, perhaps irreversible harm, is being done to the ecosystem. The earth, entire peoples and individual persons are being brutally punished. And behind all this pain, death and destruction there is the stench of what Basil of Caesarea called “the dung of the devil”. An unfettered pursuit of money rules. The service of the common good is left behind. Once capital becomes an idol and guides people’s decisions, once greed for money presides over the entire socioeconomic system, it ruins society, it condemns and enslaves men and women, it destroys human fraternity, it sets people against one another and, as we clearly see, it even puts at risk our common home.
I do not need to go on describing the evil effects of this subtle dictatorship: you are well aware of them. Nor is it enough to point to the structural causes of today’s social and environmental crisis. We are suffering from an excess of diagnosis, which at times leads us to multiply words and to revel in pessimism and negativity. Looking at the daily news we think that there is nothing to be done, except to take care of ourselves and the little circle of our family and friends.
What can I do, as collector of paper, old clothes or used metal, a recycler, about all these problems if I barely make enough money to put food on the table? What can I do as a craftsman, a street vendor, a trucker, a downtrodden worker, if I don’t even enjoy workers’ rights? What can I do, a farmwife, a native woman, a fisher who can hardly fight the domination of the big corporations? What can I do from my little home, my shanty, my hamlet, my settlement, when I daily meet with discrimination and marginalization? What can be done by those students, those young people, those activists, those missionaries who come to my neighborhood with their hearts full of hopes and dreams, but without any real solution for my problems? A lot! They can do a lot. You, the lowly, the exploited, the poor and underprivileged, can do, and are doing, a lot. I would even say that the future of humanity is in great measure in your own hands, through your ability to organize and carry out creative alternatives, through your daily efforts to ensure the three “L’s” (labor, lodging, land) and through your proactive participation in the great processes of change on the national, regional and global levels. Don’t lose heart!
2. You are sowers of change. Here in Bolivia I have heard a phrase which I like: “process of change”. Change seen not as something which will one day result from any one political decision or change in social structure. We know from painful experience that changes of structure which are not accompanied by a sincere conversion of mind and heart sooner or later end up in bureaucratization, corruption and failure. That is why I like the image of a “process”, where the drive to sow, to water seeds which others will see sprout, replaces the ambition to occupy every available position of power and to see immediate results. Each of us is just one part of a complex and differentiated whole, interacting in time: peoples who struggle to find meaning, a destiny, and to live with dignity, to “live well”.
As members of popular movements, you carry out your work inspired by fraternal love, which you show in opposing social injustice. When we look into the eyes of the suffering, when we see the faces of the endangered campesino, the poor laborer, the downtrodden native, the homeless family, the persecuted migrant, the unemployed young person, the exploited child, the mother who lost her child in a shootout because the barrio was occupied by drugdealers, the father who lost his daughter to enslavement…. when we think of all those names and faces, our hearts break because of so much sorrow and pain. And we are deeply moved…. We are moved because “we have seen and heard” not a cold statistic but the pain of a suffering humanity, our own pain, our own flesh. This is something quite different than abstract theorizing or eloquent indignation. It moves us; it makes us attentive to others in an effort to move forward together. That emotion which turns into community action is not something which can be understood by reason alone: it has a surplus of meaning which only peoples understand, and it gives a special feel to genuine popular movements.
Each day you are caught up in the storms of people’s lives. You have told me about their causes, you have shared your own struggles with me, and I thank you for that. You, dear brothers and sisters, often work on little things, in local situations, amid forms of injustice which you do not simply accept but actively resist, standing up to an idolatrous system which excludes, debases and kills. I have seen you work tirelessly for the soil and crops of campesinos, for their lands and communities, for a more dignified local economy, for the urbanization of their homes and settlements; you have helped them build their own homes and develop neighborhood infrastructures. You have also promoted any number of community activities aimed at reaffirming so elementary and undeniably necessary a right as that of the three “L’s”: land, lodging and labor.
This rootedness in the barrio, the land, the office, the labor union, this ability to see yourselves in the faces of others, this daily proximity to their share of troubles and their little acts of heroism: this is what enables you to practice the commandment of love, not on the basis of ideas or concepts, but rather on the basis of genuine interpersonal encounter. We do not love concepts or ideas; we love people... Commitment, true commitment, is born of the love of men and women, of children and the elderly, of peoples and communities… of names and faces which fill our hearts. From those seeds of hope patiently sown in the forgotten fringes of our planet, from those seedlings of a tenderness which struggles to grow amid the shadows of exclusion, great trees will spring up, great groves of hope to give oxygen to our world.
So I am pleased to see that you are working at close hand to care for those seedlings, but at the same time, with a broader perspective, to protect the entire forest. Your work is carried out against a horizon which, while concentrating on your own specific area, also aims to resolve at their root the more general problems of poverty, inequality and exclusion.
I congratulate you on this. It is essential that, along with the defense of their legitimate rights, peoples and their social organizations be able to construct a humane alternative to a globalization which excludes. You are sowers of change. May God grant you the courage, joy, perseverance and passion to continue sowing. Be assured that sooner or later we will see its fruits. Of the leadership I ask this: be creative and never stop being rooted in local realities, since the father of lies is able to usurp noble words, to promote intellectual fads and to adopt ideological stances. But if you build on solid foundations, on real needs and on the lived experience of your brothers and sisters, of campesinos and natives, of excluded workers and marginalized families, you will surely be on the right path.
The Church cannot and must not remain aloof from this process in her proclamation of the Gospel. Many priests and pastoral workers carry out an enormous work of accompanying and promoting the excluded throughout the world, alongside cooperatives, favouring businesses, providing housing, working generously in the fields of health, sports and education. I am convinced that respectful cooperation with the popular movements can revitalize these efforts and strengthen processes of change.
Let us always have at heart the Virgin Mary, a humble girl from small people lost on the fringes of a great empire, a homeless mother who could turn a stable for beasts into a home for Jesus with just a few swaddling clothes and much tenderness. Mary is a sign of hope for peoples suffering the birth pangs of justice. I pray that Our Lady of Mount Carmel, patroness of Bolivia, will allow this meeting of ours to be a leaven of change.
3. Lastly, I would like us all to consider some important tasks for the present historical moment, since we desire a positive change for the benefit of all our brothers and sisters. We know this. We desire change enriched by the collaboration of governments, popular movements and other social forces. This too we know. But it is not so easy to define the content of change – in other words, a social program which can embody this project of fraternity and justice which we are seeking. So don’t expect a recipe from this Pope. Neither the Pope nor the Church have a monopoly on the interpretation of social reality or the proposal of solutions to contemporary issues. I dare say that no recipe exists. History is made by each generation as it follows in the footsteps of those preceding it, as it seeks its own path and respects the values which God has placed in the human heart.
I would like, all the same, to propose three great tasks which demand a decisive and shared contribution from popular movements:
3.1 The first task is to put the economy at the service of peoples. Human beings and nature must not be at the service of money. Let us say NO to an economy of exclusion and inequality, where money rules, rather than service. That economy kills. That economy excludes. That economy destroys Mother Earth.
The economy should not be a mechanism for accumulating goods, but rather the proper administration of our common home. This entails a commitment to care for that home and to the fitting distribution of its goods among all. It is not only about ensuring a supply of food or “decent sustenance”. Nor, although this is already a great step forward, is it to guarantee the three “L’s” of land, lodging and labor for which you are working. A truly communitarian economy, one might say an economy of Christian inspiration, must ensure peoples’ dignity and their “general, temporal welfare and prosperity”. This includes the three “L’s”, but also access to education, health care, new technologies, artistic and cultural manifestations, communications, sports and recreation. A just economy must create the conditions for everyone to be able to enjoy a childhood without want, to develop their talents when young, to work with full rights during their active years and to enjoy a dignified retirement as they grow older. It is an economy where human beings, in harmony with nature, structure the entire system of production and distribution in such a way that the abilities and needs of each individual find suitable expression in social life. You, and other peoples as well, sum up this desire in a simple and beautiful expression: “to live well”.
Such an economy is not only desirable and necessary, but also possible. It is no utopia or chimera. It is an extremely realistic prospect. We can achieve it. The available resources in our world, the fruit of the intergenerational labors of peoples and the gifts of creation, more than suffice for the integral development of “each man and the whole man”. The problem is of another kind. There exists a system with different aims. A system which, while irresponsibly accelerating the pace of production, while using industrial and agricultural methods which damage Mother Earth in the name of “productivity”, continues to deny many millions of our brothers and sisters their most elementary economic, social and cultural rights. This system runs counter to the plan of Jesus.
Working for a just distribution of the fruits of the earth and human labor is not mere philanthropy. It is a moral obligation. For Christians, the responsibility is even greater: it is a commandment. It is about giving to the poor and to peoples what is theirs by right. The universal destination of goods is not a figure of speech found in the Church’s social teaching. It is a reality prior to private property. Property, especially when it affects natural resources, must always serve the needs of peoples. And those needs are not restricted to consumption. It is not enough to let a few drops fall whenever the poor shake a cup which never runs over by itself. Welfare programs geared to certain emergencies can only be considered temporary responses. They will never be able to replace true inclusion, an inclusion which provides worthy, free, creative, participatory and solidary work.
Along this path, popular movements play an essential role, not only by making demands and lodging protests, but even more basically by being creative. You are social poets: creators of work, builders of housing, producers of food, above all for people left behind by the world market.
I have seen at first hand a variety of experiences where workers united in cooperatives and other forms of community organization were able to create work where there were only crumbs of an idolatrous economy. Recuperated businesses, local fairs and cooperatives of paper collectors are examples of that popular economy which is born of exclusion and which, slowly, patiently and resolutely adopts solidary forms which dignify it. How different this is than the situation which results when those left behind by the formal market are exploited like slaves!
Governments which make it their responsibility to put the economy at the service of peoples must promote the strengthening, improvement, coordination and expansion of these forms of popular economy and communitarian production. This entails bettering the processes of work, providing adequate infrastructures and guaranteeing workers their full rights in this alternative sector. When the state and social organizations join in working for the three “L’s”, the principles of solidarity and subsidiarity come into play; and these allow the common good to be achieved in a full and participatory democracy.
3.2. The second task is to unite our peoples on the path of peace and justice.
The world’s peoples want to be artisans of their own destiny. They want to advance peacefully towards justice. They do not want forms of tutelage or interference by which those with greater power subordinate those with less. They want their culture, their language, their social processes and their religious traditions to be respected. No actual or established power has the right to deprive peoples of the full exercise of their sovereignty. Whenever they do so, we see the rise of new forms of colonialism which seriously prejudice the possibility of peace and justice. For “peace is founded not only on respect for human rights but also on respect for the rights of peoples, in particular the right to independence”.
The peoples of Latin America fought to gain their political independence and for almost two centuries their history has been dramatic and filled with contradictions, as they have striven to achieve full independence.
In recent years, after any number of misunderstandings, many Latin American countries have seen the growth of fraternity between their peoples. The governments of the region have pooled forces in order to ensure respect for the sovereignty of their own countries and the entire region, which our forebears so beautifully called the “greater country”. I ask you, my brothers and sisters of the popular movements, to foster and increase this unity. It is necessary to maintain unity in the face of every effort to divide, if the region is to grow in peace and justice.
Despite the progress made, there are factors which still threaten this equitable human development and restrict the sovereignty of the countries of the “greater country” and other areas of our planet. The new colonialism takes on different faces. At times it appears as the anonymous influence of mammon: corporations, loan agencies, certain “free trade” treaties, and the imposition of measures of “austerity” which always tighten the belt of workers and the poor. The bishops of Latin America denounce this with utter clarity in the Aparecida Document, stating that “financial institutions and transnational companies are becoming stronger to the point that local economies are subordinated, especially weakening the local states, which seem ever more powerless to carry out development projects in the service of their populations”. At other times, under the noble guise of battling corruption, the narcotics trade and terrorism – grave evils of our time which call for coordinated international action – we see states being saddled with measures which have little to do with the resolution of these problems and which not infrequently worsen matters.
Similarly, the monopolizing of the communications media, which would impose alienating examples of consumerism and a certain cultural uniformity, is another one of the forms taken by the new colonialism. It is ideological colonialism. As the African bishops have observed, poor countries are often treated like “parts of a machine, cogs on a gigantic wheel”.
It must be acknowledged that none of the grave problems of humanity can be resolved without interaction between states and peoples at the international level. Every significant action carried out in one part of the planet has universal, ecological, social and cultural repercussions. Even crime and violence have become globalized. Consequently, no government can act independently of a common responsibility. If we truly desire positive change, we have to humbly accept our interdependence. Interaction, however, is not the same as imposition; it is not the subordination of some to serve the interests of others. Colonialism, both old and new, which reduces poor countries to mere providers of raw material and cheap labor, engenders violence, poverty, forced migrations and all the evils which go hand in hand with these, precisely because, by placing the periphery at the service of the center, it denies those countries the right to an integral development. That is inequality, and inequality generates a violence which no police, military, or intelligence resources can control.
Let us say NO to forms of colonialism old and new. Let us say YES to the encounter between peoples and cultures. Blessed are the peacemakers.
Here I wish to bring up an important issue. Some may rightly say, “When the Pope speaks of colonialism, he overlooks certain actions of the Church”. I say this to you with regret: many grave sins were committed against the native peoples of America in the name of God. My predecessors acknowledged this, CELAM has said it, and I too wish to say it. Like Saint John Paul II, I ask that the Church “kneel before God and implore forgiveness for the past and present sins of her sons and daughters”. I would also say, and here I wish to be quite clear, as was Saint John Paul II: I humbly ask forgiveness, not only for the offenses of the Church herself, but also for crimes committed against the native peoples during the so-called conquest of America.
I also ask everyone, believers and nonbelievers alike, to think of those many bishops, priests and laity who preached and continue to preach the Good News of Jesus with courage and meekness, respectfully and pacifically; who left behind them impressive works of human promotion and of love, often standing alongside the native peoples or accompanying their popular movements even to the point of martyrdom. The Church, her sons and daughters, are part of the identity of the peoples of Latin America. An identity which here, as in other countries, some powers are committed to erasing, at times because our faith is revolutionary, because our faith challenges the tyranny of mammon. Today we are dismayed to see how in the Middle East and elsewhere in the world many of our brothers and sisters are persecuted, tortured and killed for their faith in Jesus. This too needs to be denounced: in this third world war, waged peacemeal, which we are now experiencing, a form of genocide is taking place, and it must end.
To our brothers and sisters in the Latin American indigenous movement, allow me to express my deep affection and appreciation of their efforts to bring peoples and cultures together in a form of coexistence which I would call polyhedric, where each group preserves its own identity by building together a plurality which does not threaten but rather reinforces unity. Your quest for an interculturalism, which combines the defense of the rights of the native peoples with respect for the territorial integrity of states, is for all of us a source of enrichment and encouragement.
3.3. The third task, perhaps the most important facing us today, is to defend Mother Earth.
Our common home is being pillaged, laid waste and harmed with impunity. Cowardice in defending it is a grave sin. We see with growing disappointment how one international summit after another takes place without any significant result. There exists a clear, definite and pressing ethical imperative to implement what has not yet been done. We cannot allow certain interests – interests which are global but not universal – to take over, to dominate states and international organizations, and to continue destroying creation. People and their movements are called to cry out, to mobilize and to demand – peacefully, but firmly – that appropriate and urgently-needed measures be taken. I ask you, in the name of God, to defend Mother Earth. I have duly addressed this issue in my Encyclical Letter Laudato Si’.
4. In conclusion, I would like to repeat: the future of humanity does not lie solely in the hands of great leaders, the great powers and the elites. It is fundamentally in the hands of peoples and in their ability to organize. It is in their hands, which can guide with humility and conviction this process of change. I am with you. Let us together say from the heart: no family without lodging, no rural worker without land, no laborer without rights, no people without sovereignty, no individual without dignity, no child without childhood, no young person without a future, no elderly person without a venerable old age. Keep up your struggle and, please, take great care of Mother Earth. I pray for you and with you, and I ask God our Father to accompany you and to bless you, to fill you with his love and defend you on your way by granting you in abundance that strength which keeps us on our feet: that strength is hope, the hope which does not disappoint. Thank you and I ask you, please, to pray for me.
 JOHN XXIII, Encyclical Mater et Magistra (15 May 1961), 3: AAS 53 (1961), 402.
 PAUL VI, Encyclical Populorum Progressio (26 March 1967), 14: AAS 59 (1967), 264.
 PONTIFICAL COUNCIL FOR JUSTICE AND PEACE, Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, 157.
 FIFTH GENERAL CONFERENCE OF THE LATIN AMERICAN AND CARIBBEAN BISHOPS, Aparecida Document (29 June 2007), 66.
 JOHN PAUL II, Post-Synodal Apostolic Exhortation Ecclesia in Africa (14 September 1995), 52: AAS 88 (1996), 32-22; ID., Encyclical Letter Sollicitudo Rei Socialis (30 December 1987), 22: AAS 80 (1988), 539.
 Bull of Indiction of the Great Jubilee of the Year 2000 Incarnationis Mysterium (29 November 1998),11: AAS 91 (1999), 139-141.
"We Can No Longer Turn Our Backs On Mother Earth" – To Educators, Francis Teaches His Eco-cyclical
Nineteen days after his Eco-cyclical was published to no shortage of spin, hype and polarized contention, in his speech tonight to Ecuador's community of teachers at the country's pontifical university, the Pope made his first extensive remarks on Laudato Si', becoming his definitive statement to date on the text.
With Francis set to head to Bolivia before noon tomorrow – and concerns well in evidence over the 12,000-foot altitude of its capital and first stop, La Paz – the last full day of this visit's opening leg wrapped with the educators' meeting, followed by a talk to the country's political and business leaders on the building up of a society in which "no one is excluded," urging the dignitaries to avoid a civic discourse "based on confrontation and the attempt to eliminate our opponents."
Given the focus on the encyclical in the former meeting, however, here's the Vatican translation of the education address:
My Brother Bishops, Father Rector, Distinguished Authorities, Dear Professors and Students, Dear Friends, I am very happy to be here with you this afternoon at the Pontifical Catholic University of Ecuador, which for almost sixty years has helped to further the Church’s educational mission in service to the men and women of this country. I am grateful for your kind words of welcome, which expressed your profound hopes and concerns in the face of the challenges, both personal and social, of your work as educators.
In the Gospel we have just heard, Jesus, the Master, teaches the crowds and the small group of his disciples by accommodating himself to their ability to understand. He does this with parables, like that of the sower (cf. Lk 8:4-15). He does it in a way that everyone can understand. Jesus does not seek to “play the professor”. Instead, he seeks to reach people’s hearts, their understanding and their lives, so that they may bear fruit. The parable of the sower speaks to us of “cultivating”. It speaks of various kinds of soil, ways of sowing and bearing fruit, and how they are all related. Ever since the time of Genesis, God has quietly urged us to “cultivate and care for the earth”. God does not only give us life: he gives us the earth, he gives us all of creation. He does not only give man a partner and endless possibilities: he also gives human beings a task, he gives them a mission. He invites them to be a part of his creative work and he says: “Cultivate it! I am giving you seeds, soil, water and sun. I am giving you your hands and those of your brothers and sisters. There it is, it is yours. It is a gift, a present, an offering. It is not something that can be bought or acquired. It precedes us and it will be there long after us. Our world is a gift given to us by God so that, with him, we can make it our own. God did not will creation for himself, so he could see himself reflected in it. On the contrary: creation is a gift to be shared. It is the space that God gives us to build up with one another, to build a “we”. The world, history, all of time – this is the setting in which we build this “we” with God, with others, with the earth. This invitation is always present, more or less consciously in our life; it is always there.
But there is something else which is special. As Genesis recounts, after the word “cultivate”, another word immediately follows: “care”. Each explains the other. They go hand in hand. Those who do not cultivate do not care; those who do not care do not cultivate. We are not only invited to share in the work of creation and to cultivate it, to make it grow and to develop it. We are also invited to care for it, to protect it, to be its guardians. Nowadays we are increasingly aware of how important this is. It is no longer a mere recommendation, but rather a requirement, “because of the harm we have inflicted on [the earth] by our irresponsible use and abuse of the goods with which God has endowed it. We have come to see ourselves as her lords and masters, entitled to plunder it at will… This is why the earth herself, burdened and laid waste, is among the most abandoned and maltreated of our poor” (Laudato Si’, 2). There is a relationship between our life and that of mother earth, between the way we live and the gift we have received from God. “The human environment and the natural environment deteriorate together; we cannot adequately combat environmental degradation unless we attend to causes related to human and social degradation” (Laudato Si’, 48). Yet just as both can “deteriorate”, we can also say that they can “support one another and can be changed for the better”. This reciprocal relationship can lead to openness, transformation, and life, or to destruction and death. One thing is certain: we can no longer turn our backs on reality, on our brothers and sisters, on mother earth. It is wrong to turn aside from what is happening all around us, as if certain situations did not exist or have nothing to do with our life. Again and again we sense the urgency of the question which God put to Cain, “Where is your brother?” But I wonder if our answer continues to be: “Am I my brother’s keeper?” (Gen 4:9). Here, in this university setting, it would be worthwhile reflecting on the way we educate about this earth of ours, which cries out to heaven. Our academic institutions are seedbeds, places full of possibility, fertile soil which we must care for, cultivate and protect. Fertile soil thirsting for life. My question to you, as educators, is this: Do you watch over your students, helping them to develop a critical sense, an open mind capable of caring for today’s world? A spirit capable of seeking new answers to the varied challenges that society sets before us? Are you able to encourage them not to disregard the world around them? Does our life, with its uncertainties, mysteries and questions, find a place in the university curriculum or different academic activities? Do we enable and support a constructive debate which fosters dialogue in the pursuit of a more humane world? One avenue of reflection involves all of us, family, schools and teachers. How do we help our young people not to see a university degree as synonymous with higher status, money and social prestige. How can we help make their education a mark of greater responsibility in the face of today’s problems, the needs of the poor, concern for the environment? I also have a question for you, dear students. You are Ecuador’s present and future, the seedbed of your society’s future growth. Do you realize that this time of study is not only a right, but a privilege? How many of your friends, known or unknown, would like to have a place in this house but, for various reasons, do not? To what extent do our studies help us feel solidarity with them? Educational communities play an essential role in the enrichment of civic and cultural life. It is not enough to analyze and describe reality: there is a need to shape environments of creative thinking, discussions which develop alternatives to current problems, especially today. Faced with the globalization of a technocratic paradigm which tends to believe “that every increase in power means an increase of progress itself, an advance in security, usefulness, welfare and vigor; …an assimilation of new values into the stream of culture, as if reality, goodness and truth automatically flow from technological and economic power as such” (Laudato Si’, 105), it is urgent that we keep reflecting on and talking about our current situation. We need to ask ourselves about the kind of culture we want not only for ourselves, but for our children and our grandchildren. We have received this earth as an inheritance, as a gift, in trust. We would do well to ask ourselves: “What kind of world do we want to leave behind? What meaning or direction do we want to give to our lives? Why have we been put here? What is the purpose of our work and all our efforts?” (cf. Laudato Si’, 160). Personal initiatives are always necessary and good. But we are asked to go one step further: to start viewing reality in an organic and not fragmented way, to ask about where we stand in relation to others, inasmuch as “everything is interconnected” (Laudato Si’, 138). As a university, as educational institutions, as teachers and students, life itself challenges us to answer this question: What does this world need us for? Where is your brother? May the Holy Spirit inspire and accompany us, for he has summoned us, invited us, given us the opportunity and the duty to offer the best of ourselves. He is the same Spirit who on the first day of creation moved over the waters, ready to transform them, ready to bestow life. He is the same Spirit who gave the disciples the power of Pentecost. The Spirit does not abandon us. He becomes one with us, so that we can encounter paths of new life. May he, the Spirit, always be our teacher and our companion along the way.
"Our Faith Is Always Revolution" – In Quito, Francis' "Mission" In Black and White
Another day... another crowd of a million....
...and yet again on this Latin American homecoming tour, another powerful message from the Pope to reiterate one of his core priorities.
In the second homily of a papal trek whose messages are quickly shaping up as a crash course in "Francis 101," yesterday's Synod salvo in Guayaquil was followed up this morning by an emphasis on a missionary church in the Ecuadorean capital, Quito. And with it, amid the ongoing "fantasies of [his] many supposed 'defenders' who've sought to portray Francis less as Simon Peter than Simón Bolívar" – the 19th century leader of Latin America's liberation from colonial rule – the man himself aimed right at the difference between the two, then reaching beyond to the very "cry" of Jesus.
As context goes, today's focus – couched in a votive Mass for the Evangelization of Peoples (fullvid) – springs directly from the twin foundational texts of Jorge Bergoglio's ecclesiology: Evangelii gaudium, Francis' sweeping governing manifesto whose "dream" of a church driven to live "a missionary option" provides the sole roadmap through which this pontificate can genuinely be understood, and its predecessor, the 2007 Aparecida Charter of the Latin American bishops (its drafting led by the then cardinal-archbishop of Buenos Aires), which presented a vision of a church engaged in "permanent mission" and, with it, the foreshadowing of what the newly-elected Pope would famously term "a church which is poor and for the poor!"
Here, an additional note: for someone who recently admitted to not having watched television in nearly 25 years and previously said he couldn't operate a device that "has more than two buttons on it" – in the cited instance, a CD player (when his cherished opera recordings stopped being pressed on vinyl) – Francis' sense of effective settings and optics in a multimedia age is uncannily well-targeted. In that light, with today's second reading in the indigenous language of Quechua and the Pope clad in a striking black-on-white patterned chasuble of native origin, the pontiff served to viscerally underscore what's arguably the most consequential ad intra push in Evangelii gaudium (a point most Anglophone "experts" completely missed): namely, its cited "imperative... to inculturate the Gospel" – a work through which, once achieved, "the diversity of peoples who experience the gift of God, each in accordance with its own culture... expresses [the church's] genuine catholicity and shows forth the 'beauty of her varied face.'"
After decades of wrangling between Rome and the bishops of Asia and Africa over the latter's incorporation of evocative local understandings into their churches' witness, like too much else that watershed call remains largely ignored... and as his first US trek draws ever nearer, seemingly no less than Francis himself grasps that simply being heard – let alone heeded – might just take a miracle all its own.
Against said backdrop – his chosen Gospel the John 17 account of the Last Supper – here's the Vatican translation of today's preach:
The word of God calls us to live in unity, that the world may believe. I think of those hushed words of Jesus during the Last Supper as more of a shout, a cry rising up from this Mass which we are celebrating in Bicentennial Park. The bicentennial which this Park commemorates was that of Latin America’s cry for independence. It was a cry which arose from being conscious of a lack of freedom, of exploitation and despoliation, of being “subject to the passing whims of the powers that be” (Evangelii Gaudium, 213). I would like to see these two cries joined together, under the beautiful challenge of evangelization. We evangelize not with grand words, or complicated concepts, but with “the joy of the Gospel”, which “fills the hearts and lives of all who encounter Jesus. For those who accept his offer of salvation are set free from sin, sorrow, inner emptiness and loneliness” (ibid., 1). We who are gathered here at table with Jesus are ourselves a cry, a shout born of the conviction that his presence leads us to unity, “pointing to a horizon of beauty and inviting others to a delicious banquet” (ibid., 15). “Father, may they be one... so that the world may believe”. This was Jesus’ prayer as he raised his eyes to heaven. This petition arose in a context of mission: “As you sent me into the world, so I have sent them into the world”. At that moment, the Lord was experiencing in his own flesh the worst of this world, a world he nonetheless loved dearly. Knowing full well its intrigues, its falsity and its betrayals, he did not turn away, he did not complain. We too encounter daily a world torn apart by wars and violence. It would be facile to think that division and hatred only concern struggles between countries or groups in society. Rather, they are a manifestation of that “widespread individualism” which divides us and sets us against one another (cf. Evangelii Gaudium, 99), that legacy of sin lurking in the heart of human beings, which causes so much suffering in society and all of creation. But is it precisely this troubled world into which Jesus sends us. We must not respond with nonchalance, or complain we do not have the resources to do the job, or that the problems are too big. Instead, we must respond by taking up the cry of Jesus and accepting the grace and challenge of being builders of unity. There was no shortage of conviction or strength in that cry for freedom which arose a little more than two hundred years ago. But history tells us that it only made headway once personal differences were set aside, together with the desire for power and the inability to appreciate other movements of liberation which were different yet not thereby opposed. Evangelization can be a way to unite our hopes, concerns, ideals and even utopian visions. We believe this and we make it our cry. I have already said that, “in our world, especially in some countries, different forms of war and conflict are re-emerging, yet we Christians remain steadfast in our intention to respect others, to heal wounds, to build bridges, to strengthen relationships and to ‘bear one another’s burdens’ (Evangelii Gaudium, 67). The desire for unity involves the delightful and comforting joy of evangelizing, the conviction that we have an immense treasure to share, one which grows stronger from being shared, and becomes ever more sensitive to the needs of others (cf. ibid., 9). Hence the need to work for inclusivity at every level, to avoid forms of selfishness, to build communication and dialogue, to encourage collaboration. We need to give our hearts to our companions along the way, without suspicion or distrust. “Trusting others is an art, and peace is an art” (ibid., 244). Our unity can hardly shine forth if spiritual worldliness makes us feud among ourselves in a futile quest for power, prestige, pleasure or economic security. Such unity is already an act of mission, “that the world may believe”. Evangelization does not consist in proselytizing, but in attracting by our witness those who are far off, in humbly drawing near to those who feel distant from God and the Church, those who are fearful or indifferent, and saying to them: “The Lord, with great respect and love, is also calling you to be a part of his people” (Evangelii Gaudium, 113).
The Church’s mission as sacrament of salvation also has to do with her identity as a pilgrim people called to embrace all the nations of the earth. The more intense the communion between us, the more effective our mission becomes (cf. John Paul II, Pastores Gregis, 22). Becoming a missionary Church requires constantly fostering communion, since mission does not have to do with outreach alone… We also need to be missionaries within the Church, showing that she is “a mother who reaches out, a welcoming home, a constant school of missionary communion” (Aparecida Document, 370). Jesus’ prayer can be realized because he has consecrated us. “For their sake I consecrate myself, that they also may be consecrated in truth”. The spiritual life of an evangelizer is born of this profound truth, which should not be confused with a few comforting religious exercises. Jesus consecrates us so that we can encounter him personally. And this encounter leads us in turn to encounter others, to become involved with our world and to develop a passion for evangelization (cf. Evangelii Gaudium, 78). Intimacy with God, in itself incomprehensible, is revealed by images which speak to us of communion, communication, self-giving and love. For that reason, the unity to which Jesus calls us is not uniformity, but rather a “multifaceted and inviting harmony” (Evangelii Gaudium, 117). The wealth of our differences, our diversity which becomes unity whenever we commemorate Holy Thursday, makes us wary of all totalitarian, ideological or sectarian schemes. Nor is this unity something we can fashion as we will, setting conditions, choosing who can belong and who cannot. Jesus prays that we will all become part of a great family in which God is our Father and all of us are brothers and sisters. This is not about having the same tastes, the same concerns, the same gifts. We are brothers and sisters because God created us out of love and destined us, purely of his own initiative, to be his sons and daughters (cf. Eph 1:5). We are brothers and sisters because “God has sent the Spirit of his Son into our hearts, crying “Abba! Father!” (Gal 4:6). We are brothers and sisters because, justified by the blood of Christ Jesus (cf. Rom 5:9), we have passed from death to life and been made “coheirs” of the promise (cf. Gal 3:26-29; Rom 8:17). That is the salvation which God makes possible for us, and which the Church proclaims with joy: to be part of the divine “we”. Our cry, in this place linked to the original cry for freedom in this country, echoes that of Saint Paul: “Woe to me if I do not preach the Gospel!” (1 Cor 9:16). It is a cry every bit as urgent and pressing as was the cry for independence. It is similarly thrilling in its ardor. May each of you be a witness to a fraternal communion which shines forth in our world! How beautiful it would be if all could admire how much we care for one another, how we encourage and help each other. Giving of ourselves establishes an interpersonal relationship; we do not give “things” but our very selves. In any act of giving, we give ourselves. “Giving of oneself” means letting all the power of that love which is God’s Holy Spirit take root in our lives, opening our hearts to his creative power. When we give of ourselves, we discover our true identity as children of God in the image of the Father and, like him, givers of life; we discover that we are brothers and sisters of Jesus, to whom we bear witness. This is what it means to evangelize; this is the new revolution – for our faith is always revolutionary – this is our deepest and most enduring cry.
After a morning meeting with – but unusually, no speech to – the country's bishops, today's schedule wraps up with an address to representatives of Ecuador's education community, then another to its political and economic leaders. (SVILUPPO:Texts of both.) -30-
One of global Catholicism's most prominent chroniclers, Rocco Palmo has held court as the "Church Whisperer" since 2004, when the pages you're reading were launched with an audience of three, grown since by nothing but word of mouth, and kept alive throughout solely by means of reader support.
A former US correspondent for the London-based international Catholic weekly The Tablet, he's been a church analyst for The New York Times, Associated Press, Washington Post, Reuters, Los Angeles Times, BBC, NBC, CNN and NPR among other mainstream print and broadcast outlets worldwide.
A native of Philadelphia, Rocco Palmo attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts in Political Science. In 2010, he received a Doctorate of Humane Letters honoris causa from Aquinas Institute of Theology in St Louis.
In 2011, Palmo co-chaired the first Vatican conference on social media, convened by the Pontifical Councils for Culture and Social Communications. By appointment of Archbishop Charles Chaput OFM Cap., he's likewise served on the first-ever Pastoral Council of the Archdiocese, whose Church remains his home.